Generalized hydrodynamics, local prethermalization, and hydrodynamization in ultracold 1D gases.
Marcos Rigol, Penn State University
Experiments with nearly-integrable ultracold 1D gases have probed dynamics involving large distances and long times, testing the recently proposed theory of generalized hydrodynamics . Using “high-energy” quenches implemented via a Bragg scattering pulse, the experiments have also unveiled equilibration at the shortest available time scales, a process known as hydrodynamization in the context of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which precedes local prethermalization . I will summarize theoretical progress over the last 15 years on the quantum dynamics of nearly-integrable systems that allows us to understand the experimental observations, as well as to carry out high-precision calculations to quantitatively describe the experimental results. For hydrodynamization, I’ll argue that near-integrability provides a theoretical framework from which one can draw a general picture that applies to nonintegrable systems.
1] N. Malvania, Y. Zhang, Y. Le, J. Dubail, MR, and D. S. Weiss, Generalized hydrodynamics in strongly interacting 1D Bose gases, Science 373, 1129 (2021).
 Y. Le, Y. Zhang, S. Gopalakrishnan, MR, and D. S. Weiss, Direct observation of hydrodynamization and local prethermalization, arXiv:2210.07318.