Entanglement Spheres and a UV-IR connection in Effective Field Theories

Disjoint regions of the latticized, massless scalar field vacuum become separable at large distances beyond the entanglement sphere, a distance that extends to infinity in the continuum limit. Through numerical calculations in one-, two- and three-dimensions, the radius of an entanglement sphere is found to be determined by the highest momentum mode of the field supported across the diameter, d, of two identical regions. As a result, the long-distance behavior of the entanglement is determined by the short-distance structure of the field. Effective eld theories (EFTs), describing a system up to a given momentum scale Lambda, are expected to share this feature, with regions of the EFT vacuum separable (or dependent on the UV-completion) beyond a distance proportional to Λ. The smallest non-zero value of the entanglement negativity supported by the field at large distances is conjectured to be NN~exp(-Λ d), independent of the number of spatial dimensions. This phenomenon may be manifest in perturbative QCD processes.