Geometric Quantum Information Structure in Quantum Fields and their Lattice Simulation

An upper limit to distillable entanglement between two disconnected regions of massless noninteracting scalar field theory has an exponential decay defined by a geometric decay constant. When regulated at short distances with a spatial lattice, this entanglement abruptly vanishes beyond a dimensionless separation, defining a negativity sphere. In two spatial dimensions, we determine this geometric decay constant between a pair of disks and the growth of the negativity sphere toward the continuum through a series of lattice calculations. Making the connection to quantum field theories in three-spatial dimensions, assuming such quantum information scales appear also in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a new relative scale may be present in effective field theories describing the low-energy dynamics of nucleons and nuclei. We highlight potential impacts of the distillable entanglement structure on effective field theories, lattice QCD calculations and future quantum simulations.